Abstract: The article analyzes the dynamics of technical education development in Izhevsk and Votkinsk from the beginning of the XIX century to the present day: from the mining school to the university. The complexity of factory technologies has led to a significant increase in the period of specialist training and the number of subjects studied: from 6 years and 8 academic disciplines in the early XIX century to 16-17 years (including the secondary education) and more than 100 disciplines by the beginning of the XXI century. A study of the first years of the Izhevsk mechanical institute and IMI first branch in Votkinsk revealed a deeper cultural connection with the Bauman Moscow state technical university than previously thought. By establishing the official patronage links between the country's leading technical university and the newly created institute in the peripheral region, the government managed to decentralize the training of high-quality personnel for industrial enterprises and other sectors of the Udmurtia economy.
Abstract: Populations of different societies differ enormously in their average intelligence scores. Scores of humans from developing countries are lower than those of humans living in advanced countries. Scores of populations of industrialized countries have been continuously growing for more than 100 years. These two groups of phenomena are interconnected to each other. The analysis presented here inserts the psychometric research results, circling around the Flynn effect, into the context of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology. The results of more than 1.000 empirical enquiries, basing on this comparably smaller twin industry, carried out in the past 80 years, have shown that populations of pre-modern societies are staying on preoperational and concrete-operational stages and do not reach the stage of formal operations usually. Only adolescents of modern societies gain the cultural opportunity to develop this stage of abstract thinking. The both leading theories of intelligence, rightly commented, come to the same conclusion referring to the relationship of culture and cognition. Both approaches can support each other. Moreover, the essay combines these insights with notions stemming from ethnology, history, and sociology. The resulting conclusions are helpful to a better understanding not only of mental structures but also of the development of culture and social structures.